In depth guide to running Elasticsearch in production

TechNotes

If you are here, I do not need to tell you that Elasticsearch is awesome, fast and mostly just works.
If you are here, I also do not need to tell you that Elasticsearch can be opaque, confusing, and seems to break randomly for no reason. In this post I want to share my experiences and tips on how to set up Elasticsearch correctly and avoid common pitfalls.
I am not here to make money so I will mostly just jam everything into one post instead of doing a series. Feel free to skip sections.

The basics: Clusters, Nodes, Indices and Shards

If you are really new to Elasticsearch (ES) I want to explain some basic concepts first. This section will not explain best practices at all, and focuses mainly on explaining the nomenclature. Most people can probably skip this.

Elasticsearch is a management framework for running distributed installations of

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